Why Planting Methods Are Important?
Agriculture is an essential sector. A lot of processes and techniques are considered in this. To get the optimum yield with a suitable cost production is the key goal. And in addition to that, we have to manage the time, land availability, other resources and also ensure less competition in the cropland. That’s where the different types of planting methods jump in to help us. Based on our necessities and kind of crops it is decided.
Planting method should be planned. A lot of precautions and instructions must be followed to ensure a healthy plant avoiding plant stress. The planting method also depends on sowing season, sowing depth and planting pattern. The spacing, both row to row and crop to crop, is a crucial decision. The spacing decided the crop competition, availability of water, nutrients and light to the individual plant.
Initially, it may seem a difficult task, with no clue where to start. And we are here to help you at every step.
Requirements Before Planting
Planting can be by directly sowing the seeds or by transplanting. In direct sowing, the seeds undergo several treatments to increase its vitality and viability. Viability is the ability or capacity of the seed to germinate under a given condition. Vitality is the ability or capacity of the seed to grow and develop. The seed is treated with fungicides and agrochemicals to protect it from disease, insect, fungus, pest and birds. It is treated with biofertilisers to supply nutrients. It is also coated with micronutrients like Boron, Zinc and Iron.
Stratification is a method where the seed is alternatively is exposed to simulating warming and chilling to prepare it for the outdoor condition. Scarification is the method of altering the seed coat to encourage germinating. In Hot water treatment, the seed is soaked in water at a temperature of 75-100° C for 12-24 hours. In Acid treatment, the seed is treated with concentrated Sulphuric acid for 6-10 hours. Other treatments include leaching, Hardening, Incubation, Extension of viability, etc.
In transplanting, the seeds are grown in a preserved environment under a suitable condition such as a protected nursery bed or greenhouse. After the seed grows into a seedling, it is transferred to the main cropland. This is known as transplanting. In a nursery bed, the seeds are kept in a container with adequate ventilation, sunlight, irrigation, etc. After seed treatment and soil preparation, nursery bed are prepared where the seeds are grown up to a certain age. Extra and intensive care of the seeds is taken. In the greenhouse, the climatic conditions can be regulated like humidity and temperature. It is a glass structure that provides plants with a suitable condition. By transplanting duration on filed is reduced
Planting can be done manually and also with the help of tools or machines. A range of equipment is available for this purpose.
Types of Planting Methods
In this method, the seeds are scattered over the cropland. This method is followed for small-sized to medium-sized crops. It is the most comfortable and cheapest method of sowing. India follows this method widely as it consumes very less time. A lot of experience and skills are required to scatter the seeds at an approximately uniform pattern. But before broadcasting the seeds, soil preparation is crucial. The soil should be prepared carefully to provide suitable condition to the seeds that will trigger germination. The sowing can be done strip by strip by broadcasting the seeds in a narrow strip. Another alternative is crisscross sowing, where broadcasting is done in either direction. This ensures a uniform and optimum population. Sometimes the seeds are mixed with sand to make it bulky when the size of the seed is small. For example, mustard. It is easier to handle that way. Some farmers prefer beating the seeds against the basket. This even ensures uniform scattering. Once broadcasting is done, the seeds are covered with a layer of soil. This can be done using a country plough or a leveller. Comb harrow is also the right choice of equipment. The levellers at times collect the seeds and leave it on the other side when the size of the seed is large.
In this method, sowing is done in a stripe or line. It is time-consuming and comparatively costly. Dibbling is a method where a hole is made at the desired depth, and the seed is inserted followed by covering the hole. This method requires suitable soil condition. It can be done on a plane surface, channels, ridges or furrows. On ridges and furrows, it is known as hill placement. Hill placement is done waterlogged or less water zone. It is also suitable to avoid direct contact of the seed with the fertilisers. It ensures a stable population, reduced seed rate and better germination.
This method can be practised manually or with mechanical help. Seeds are inserted in the furrows that are opened by the plough. After sowing, they are clover with earth while another furrow is created. The seeds are thus sown at a uniform distance. Manually it can be a time-consuming process. The equipment used is a seed drill. It has a ploughshare and hopper. In this method, seeds are sown at the desired depth. This method is optimum for seeds of large size, for example, sunflower, maise, sorghum, millets, etc.
In this method, seeds are sown at the desired depth, covered with earth and compacted. Implements such as animal-drawn Gorrus or power-operated seed drills are used. The seeds are planted at regular intervals continuously in a row. In this method, sowing and application of fertilisers can be made simultaneously. This method is expensive, time-consuming and requires labour. But it ensures an optimum population over an area that are uniformly spaced.
It consists of a seed bowel or funnel, vertical seed bowl filled to indigenous plough. The vertical tube is either fitted to the shoe of the plough or tied with the body to drop the seed just behind the plough in-furrow. These are drawn by a pair of bullocks.
This device can be divided into two components. The bigger one of the two is for seed and the other one for fertiliser. Most fertiliser drill has provision to drop the fertiliser either through the same tube along with seed or through a separate tube directly behind the seed tube.
They are trailed type, semi-mounted type or rounded type. The size of this drill is expressed by the number of furrow openers and their spacing. It is used in seed behind the plough method.
It is a pointed wooden stick with iron at the end. It makes a hole of suitable depth for sowing.